Tribe and Clans
The catchment population is approximately 100,000 and the tribes inhabiting the frontier region of Peshawar are Adamakhel Afridi’s.
The following clans occupy FR Peshawar:
- Hassan Khel
- Ashu Khel
- Bora Jawaki/Passani
- Jana Kor
- HASSAN KHEL
The Hassan Khel live in a valley on the Eastern boundary of Adam Khel area which forms the western limits of the Cherat sanitarium. It is the biggest tribe in FR Peshawar. Hassan Khel are sub divided into four parts and named after their locations: Taroonai, Kooi, Jankor and Musa Darra.
In all there exist some 28 villages, 7 each in Taroonai and Kooi, 9 in Janakor and five in Musa Darra. Taroonai and Kooi are occupied by Mian Khel and Zaka Khel and Janakor and Musa Darra by Barkai and Tatkai sub-sections.
- ASHU KHEL
The Ashu Khel are said to be the descendants of Adam by his second wife Asho. They are sub-divided into four sections. The Asho Khel are quiet and peace loving. In costume, manners and appearance, they are more like Khyber Afridis than Adam Khel of Kohat pass. The majority of them live in groups of two or three viilages at the foot of hills south of the Fort Kandaowals. The Aka Khel sub-section lives in two villages near Kandao known as “Kandar”. A portion of Asho Khel also lives in seven small villages between Wuch Algadda and Jawaki Colony in Bori.
This section is divided between two main branches, namely Pitao Jawakis residing in Kohat Frontier Region and Swere Jawakis living in Peshawar Frontier Region. Pitao Jawakis are divided into two sub-sections, which are further divided under Kimat Khel, Kasim Khel, Ismail Khel, Hibat Khel, Jamu and Paya. The Swere Jawaki live in FR Peshawar and their main villages are Bori and Pastawani and are separated by a mountain range. Incidentally the British Indian forces mounted two expeditions against Bori Jawaki in the second half of 19thCentury. Most of the people have migrated from this village now as the water level is very low. A good number of them have settled close to our schools and some of their children attend our schools.
Janakor are located in the extreme east of the FR Peshawar. Its boundary touching Cherat in the east, in the north district Peshawar and in the south Nowshera. Jankor is a sub section of Hassan Khel and is one of the more powerful tribes of the FR Peshawar. It is divided into two sections, Tatki and Barki with main villages of Mandai, Samma Badaber, Khas Janakor and Musa Darra. In all there exist some 28 villages.
The schools’ objectives
- To provide quality education to the students from marginalized communities of FR Peshawar and adjacent settled areas.
- To create an environment in the area of seeing education as way out of the poverty
- To provide assistance to families who cannot afford education for their children
- To encourage families to send girls students to the school
- To discourage dropouts of children especially girls education
- To encourage students especially girls to enroll in secondary school after primary education
There are currently 373 students in the MGM and BGM schools and majority of them are girls. The girls section is registered with the Department of Education to Secondary level (O level), currently we have classes up to Class 9 (age 15/16) and we are in the process of applying to register the MGM as a Higher Secondary School (A level).
The BGM school is expanding and a new building is under construction. Currently the school has children up to class 6 (age 11/12), these children are currently taught in the spare rooms of MGM school. The BGM school will eventually provide education up to Secondary/Matric (O level).
The climate of FR Peshawar is extreme. It is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The highest temperatures are experienced during the months of June and July and the coldest months are experienced in December and January.
FR Peshawar is directly controlled by the Deputy Commissioner Peshawar through an Asistant Political Agent from Peshawar with the help of Maliks, (tribal elders) and Khasdaar ( locally recruited force). The area being part of Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) enjoys special constitutional status which was introduced in 1896 and remains to date. The area is governed through FCR (Frontier Criminal Regulation) which gives immense powers to the Political Agent who has power to imprison a whole section of a tribe in FR Peshawar for a crime committed by an individual of the tribe. His orders cannot be challenged or appeal against in any court of law. However, a process to give right of appeal in High Court and Supreme court has now been initiated. Moreover, integration of FATA in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is hotly being debated in recent months.
MALIKS, SUFAID RESH AND KHASADARS.
The Malaki system introduced by the British Government introduced in FATA is the same in FR Peshawar as in the rest of FATA. Maliks used to work as a mediator between the administration and the “Qaum” or tribe. A Maliks position is hereditary and devolves to the son. The Lungi system known as Sufaid Reshis is a slightly lower position of Mailk.
Noor Model Schools for Boys and Girls
Profile of the area where these schools are located
The two schools were started in 2009 in abandoned school buildings constructed for Afghan refugees in the early nineties in the Merra Baghbana area UC urmur Bala Town 4 Peshawar District. Merra Baghbanan is 20 kilometres South East of Peshawar.
Baghbanan is a brick kiln community of 5,000 households consisting of Afghan refugees, internally displaced people, and the host population. They live in chronic rural poverty, with many households subsisting on an income of less than 1 US dollar per day. Children are born into bonded labour and start work on the brick kilns from an early age, and have limited life trajectories; average life expectancy is 38 years.
Girls typically marry in their early teens and have multiple pregnancies with short birth spacing. The adult female literacy rate is less than 3% so intergenerational transfer of poverty is inevitable.
Objectives of the 2 schools
- To prevent child labour by providing schools in the area
- To enroll and educate the children of school age
- To create an environment in the area to see education as a way out of the poverty trap
- To reduce malnutrition in the children by providing nutritious lunch
- To engage families through social awareness campaigning to understand the importance of education
- To improve the living standards of the communities through education
There are currently 323 students in the two schools and the majority of them are girls. The schools provide education up to primary level with the arrangement to transfer to MGM and BGM schools for further education.
These schools are mainly supported by donations from donors in the UK through our Sponsor a Child Scheme and the families pay a nominal community contribution to have ownership of the project. The children are provided with a hot lunch every day by a group of individuals in the UK through our Feed a Child Scheme, this is a very liked source of food by these children.
The children are taught the government curriculum and are provided government text books free of cost.
Baghbanan Health Centre
Baghbanan Health Centre (BHC) is situated next to the NMS schools in a purpose built building. The BHC was built by HOPE’87 with the donations from ANT Hiroshima (Japan) on the land donated by the community (about 1000 square yards) free of cost. AF was contracted to start health services in the building in 2010 and the funding was provided by HOPE’87, Proluka and Austrian Development Agency (ADA). AFPK was able to build and operationalize the BHC to provide essential services such as consultation and diagnosis; ante-natal and post natal care; nutrition support; pathology and free medications. In addition, health education sessions and social mobilization activities were implemented. The BHC saw 20,671 patients, from March 2011 to October 2012, including 3,100 girls and boys under 5 years and 7,000 women. In 2009, a comprehensive survey of 200 households in Baghbanan highlighted high levels of acute malnutrition (26.6%) and chronic malnutrition (43.1%), poor uptake of ante-natal care (14.3%), low levels of infant and child immunisation (20%) and financial problems faced at delivery (89%).
The Baghbanan population of 29,340 comprises of 5,000 households with 7,770 girls (<18), 9,025 boys (<18), 5,715 women and 6,820 men. They will benefit directly from these improvements in the health care services provided by the HC. In addition, there will be indirect beneficiaries from the neighboring regions of Frontier Region Peshawar, FATA and the Afghan refugee camp in Shamshatoo (6-20km from Baghbanan) where there are currently very limited access to affordable primary health care provision.
There was a clear need to continue primary health care service provision for this chronically poor population beyond the end of the Hope’87 funding period, and to strengthen and extend the range of service provision including immunisation of women and children, reproductive health including family planning, health education, nutritional assessment, nutrition support for malnourished girls and boys under 5 years old, pregnant and lactating women (PLW). In addition, an outreach worker programme to support dissemination of health messages needed to be implemented and local traditional birth attendants (TBAs), who have been trained in safe and effective birthing practices, needed to be utilised in a microcredit voucher scheme for reproductive health support. AF PK and AF UK were successful in securing funding for another 3 years from DFID to continue and expand the HCB services.
The DFID project concluded in the 2016. Part of the agreement with DIFD was that minimal service user charges would continue to be charged throughout the project period and retained in order to sustain the project for at least a further two years beyond the life time of the project, to allow time to secure further funds for sustainability.
The current range of services include a range of curative and preventative services including consultations, Mother and Child Services, EPI, Nutritional support, Laboratory services, TB treatment and health education activities.