Profile of the area where our projects are located
FR Peshawar is bordered by District Peshawar to the North, Kohat District to the South, Khyber Agency to the East and Nowshera District to the West. The schools and clinics are situated in Shamshatoo, District Peshawar on the border of FR Peshawar FATA. The schools mainly take children from FR Peshawar and others from the settled area.
Tribes and Clans
The catchment population is approximately 100,000 and the tribes inhabiting the frontier region of Peshawar are Adamakhel Afridis.
The following clans occupy FR Peshawar:
- Hassan Khel
- Ashu Khel
- Bora Jawaki/Passani
- Jana Kor
The Hassan Khel live in a valley on the Eastern boundary of Adam Khel area which forms the western limits of the Cherat sanitarium. It is the biggest tribe in FR Peshawar. Hassan Khel are sub divided into four parts and named after their locations: Taroonai, Kooi, Jankor and Musa Darra. In all there exist some 28 villages, 7 each in Taroonai and Kooi, 9 in Janakor and five in Musa Darra. Taroonai and Kooi are occupied by Mian Khel and Zaka Khel and Janakor and Musa Darra by Barkai and Tatkai sub-sections.
- The Ashu Khel are said to be the descendants of Adam by his second wife Asho. They are sub-divided into four sections. The Asho Khel are quiet and peace loving. In costume, manners and appearance, they are more like Khyber Afridis than Adam Khel of Kohat pass. The majority of them live in groups of two or three viilages at the foot of hills south of the Fort Kandaowals. The Aka Khel sub-section lives in two villages near Kandao known as “Kandar”. A portion of Asho Khel also lives in seven small villages between Wuch Algadda and Jawaki Colony in Bori.
- The Jawaki clan is divided between two main branches, namely Pitao Jawakis residing in Kohat Frontier Region and Swere Jawakis living in Peshawar Frontier Region. Pitao Jawakis are divided into two sub-sections, which are further divided under Kimat Khel, Kasim Khel, Ismail Khel, Hibat Khel, Jamu and Paya. The Swere Jawaki live in FR Peshawar and their main villages are Bori and Pastawani and are separated by a mountain range. Incidentally the British Indian forces mounted two expeditions against Bori Jawaki in the second half of 19thCentury. Most of the people have migrated from this village now as the water level is very low. A good number of them have settled close to our schools and some of their children attend our schools.
- The Janakor are located in the extreme east of the FR Peshawar. Its boundary touches Cherat in the east, in the north district Peshawar and in the south Nowshera. Jankor is a sub section of Hassan Khel and is one of the more powerful tribes of the FR Peshawar. It is divided into two sections, Tatki and Barki with main villages of Mandai, Samma Badaber, Khas Janakor and Musa Darra. In all there exist some 28 villages.
FR Peshawar is directly controlled by the Deputy Commissioner Peshawar through an Asistant Political Agent from Peshawar with the help of Maliks, (tribal elders) and Khasdaar (locally recruited force). The area being part of Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) enjoys special constitutional status which was introduced in 1896 and remains to date. The area is governed through FCR (Frontier Criminal Regulation) which gives immense powers to the Political Agent who has power to imprison a whole section of a tribe in FR Peshawar for a crime committed by an individual of the tribe. His orders cannot be challenged or appeal against in any court of law. However, a process to give right of appeal in High Court and Supreme court has now been initiated. Moreover, integration of FATA in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is hotly being debated in recent months.
Maliks and Sufaid Resh
The Malaki system, originally introduced by the British Government, is the same in FR Peshawar as in the rest of FATA. Maliks used to work as a mediator between the administration and the “Qaum” or tribe. A Malik’s position is hereditary and devolves to the son. The Lungi system known as Sufaid Reshis is a slightly lower position of Mailk.
The climate of FR Peshawar is extreme. It is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The highest temperatures are experienced during the months of June and July and the coldest months are experienced in December and January.
The Baghbanan area was a major resettlement area for Afghan refugees displaced by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s and 90s. The only work they could get was in the brick kilns which proliferate in this area. Baghbanan is a brick kiln community of about 5000 households of primarily Afghan origin, internally displaced people (IDP’s) as well as the indigenous population. Chronic rural poverty is endemic and many households subsist on an income of less than 1USD per day. Children are born into bonded labour (recognised as a modern form of slavery) and start work in the brick kilns from an early age. They have limited life trajectories and an average life expectancy of 38 years. Girls typically marry in their early teens and have multiple pregnancies with short birth spacing. The adult female literacy rate is less than 3% and the intergenerational transfer of poverty is inevitable.